My name is Adam. I am a British writer on, inter alia, international law.
I have a degree in philosophy, six certificates in law (including international law, international criminal law, law of the sea, corporate law) and two certificates in terrorism from universities in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States and Turkey. I work full-time in legal and compliance. I enjoy writing and travel. This website is my hobby.
Website updates / coming soon
9th December 2018:
-With the rapid advancement of technology, I am concerned about technology being used in future warfare. Cyber warfare is becoming a real threat, whether that is from state actors, lone cyber criminals or terrorist groups. Recent events in the news are key indicators of my concerns. New article “Cybersecurity News” under “Treaties/Topics”. Please enjoy.
28th November 2018:
-It has been over a month! Apologies for the delay. I have recently been looking into more developments on terrorism (including cyber-terrorism), Marshall Islands cases at the ICJ (vs. UK, Pakistan and India), Russian aggression with Ukraine near the Kerch Strait and the Georgian Presidential election. I will write about these in due course.
-I have also been planning an article on the individual vs the group, incorporating philosophy with international criminal law. I will focus more on this in the coming days.
14th October 2018:
-New article finished under “Treaties/Topics” named “Intervention and killing in Cambodia 1969-1979”. It is a short article. I did not have much time this weekend but I wanted to write this article as soon as I could. It is an important time in history and I hope by writing about it, it can inspire others to look at this conflict in more detail.
16th September 2018:
-New article finished “Legal consequences of the separation of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritius in 1965 (Request for Advisory Opinion)” under “Cases”. This took about four hours to complete, with many more hours of reading throughout last week. This article is unique in that it is a purely allegorical story based on this case. Please enjoy.
8th September 2018:
-I cannot believe it has been one month! Apologies for my absence I have been busy at work. I have been closely following events at the ICJ. New article in progress about a pending case.
-I also have in mind an article about the law of the sea. The ICJ case will take precedence.
9th August 2018:
-Dear readers, I have been away in Turkey after the Netherlands studying the law of the sea. Now that I am back in the UK, new articles will come soon.
1st July 2018:
-Apologies for the delay in articles I have been in the Netherlands.
17th June 2018:
-New article complete "Anticipatory Self-defence" under "Treaties / Topics" this took 4 hours 20 minutes to complete today. Please enjoy.
10th June 2018:
-Apologies for the delay I have been busy with work. New article finished "Summary of the UK's Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015" under "Treaties / Topics". It is my first time presenting this article in a different format, and because of this the article is greatly shortened. I will think about whether or not to continue in this format.
27th May 2018:
-Currently looking at the definition of necessity in the international law of self-defence.
6th May 2018:
-One and a half hours yesterday, and 3 and a half hours today, with midweek research, new article "Air Superiority Combat Aircraft" under "Writing / Philosophy". I have recently been fascinated at the concept of air superiority, and these aircraft would be roaming the skies today in armed conflict. Please enjoy.
5th May 2018:
-Currently writing an article relating to the military. It should be completed by Sunday/Monday.
29th April 2018:
-After 2 and a half hours, new short article completed "The value of aggression" in Treaties / Topics. Please enjoy.
22nd April 2018:
-Would you do something illegal to save 10,000 lives? On an international level with considerations of sovereignty and posterity, it is much more intracate. New article published "Kosovo: legality vs duty to save lives" under Treaties / Topics" after 4 hours of work, and many more hours of reading.
15th April 2018:
-New article finished "Opinion on the airstrikes on Syria" under "Treaties / Topics". Please enjoy.
5th April 2018:
-Article finished "Piracy in focus: Somalia and legal problems" under "Treaties / Topics". This took around five hours to complete. Please enjoy.
1st April 2018:
-Currently working on an article on piracy.
25th March 2018:
New article finished "International Terrorism Treaties" under "Treaties/ Topics". This is a short article, and took me around 2 hours to complete. The problems of the treaties I write about can be attributed to a course on international criminal law I am taking with Case Western Reserve University.
24th March 2018:
-With over four hours of reading and writing, new article out "Gaining custody of perpetrators of international crimes" under "Treaties/ Topics". Much of my writing can be attributed to a course on international criminal law I am taking with Case Western Reserve University. Please enjoy.
-I have updated the audience location image under "Press".
19th March 2018:
-Currently working on gaining custody of the accused under international law.
17th March 2018:
-New article published State building under Treaties / Topics. It is shorter than I expected, despite spending four hours on this article. I intend to expand further on this article at a later date. Please enjoy.
-I have been looking at greater detail in genocide and crimes against humanity. More to follow soon.
28th January 2018:
So much to do, so little time! I have been busy at work, but I have finished an article on sanctions, corruption and money laundering under "Treaties/Topics". It is quite brief but I wouldn't like to delay the next article any longer.
I am planning next articles to be on the crime of aggression and my experience at panmunjom (UN joint security area). I have also partially completed an article on the FARC and the Indonesia mass killings in the 1960's.
8th January 2018:
-Happy New Year, I have been working on articles specifically on sanctions, with Ukraine/Russia-related sanctions and China's sanctions on OFAC's sanctions list search.
20th December 2017:
-New article complete "US recognition of Jerusalem" under "Treaties / Topics". Please enjoy.
19th December 2017:
-My main focus these few weeks has been the US decision to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and their intention to move the US embassy to Jerusalem.
-I am currently in Korea visiting the UN Command Security Battalion-Joint Security Area.
21st November 2017:
-I have been quite busy over the past few weeks, apologies for the delay of new articles.
7th November 2017:
-This week I have been researching about the FARC in detail and the peace agreement made in 2016 in Colombia.
-I have also been looking at the conflict in South Sudan involving the Nuer and Dinka tribes.
28th October 2017:
-I have been in the Netherlands for the past two days, as such articles have been delayed.
-Article on Equatorial Guinea v. France.
-New article on the influence of social media on political views.
22nd October 2017:
-Today I spent four hours finishing the article, and yesterday I spent three hours on the article. I am happy to announce the new article since beginning it on the 12th October: "Summary and Q&A of the Iran Nuclear Deal" under "Treaties / Topics". Please enjoy.
21st October 2017:
-Still working on the Iran nuclear deal article.
14th October 2017:
-The JCPoA is an excellent example of diplomacy with E3/EU+3 and Iran reaching an historic agreement on the Iranian nuclear issue. It is the most intrusive weapons inspection regime ever submitted voluntarily by a state. Sad to hear Trump announced his decertification of it on Thursday. Congress now have 60 days to decide whether or not to impose new sanctions. New article coming soon.
12th October 2017:
-I have recently been looking into the JCPOA (Iran nuclear deal) and its effectiveness. I will be writing an article on this.
3rd October 2017:
-New article complete "The Threat of Terrorism" under "Treaties / Topics". This took around 4 days to complete. Please enjoy.
28th September 2017:
-There is an insurmountable amount of documents on Mladic at the ICTY to read through. This is ongoing.
-Much of my time as of late has been listening to the UNGA speeches from world leaders that took place last week. To understand the state of the world today, it is important to listen to the words of the leaders.
18th September 2017:
-The ICTY has been taking my interest lately, and I am learning the details of the Mladic case for a forthcoming article.
-I have added a search bar above for quicker access to those looking for something specifically. This may be a temporary measure, at the moment I am giving it a trial to see how useful it is.
9th September 2017:
-New article completed "The situation in Yemen" under "Treaties / Topics". It took a total of approximately 10 hours to complete including research, with three hours spent on it today. Please enjoy.
5th September 2017:
-Article on Yemen is progressing well, I have spent 2 hours on it today.
2nd September 2017:
-Happy September! I am currently researching for an article on the Yemen conflict.
-After that article is finished, I plan to write an article on fear (in relation to terrorism).
31st August 2017:
-Added an extra sentence (above) on my education. I am not sure if I will keep it there permanently, but for now I am content with it.
30th August 2017:
-New article finished "On suffering" under Writing / Philosophy. This article took me around 20 hours to complete over two months. Please enjoy.
-Reading articles from the ICCT.
19th August 2017:
-New article finished "What is terrorism? Who are terrorist groups?" under "Treaties/ Topics".
16th August 2017:
-I have been reading and researching about combating the financing of terrorism for awhile now, articles still in progress.
6th August 2017:
-This weekend I have done more learning than writing, and in particular three groups/individuals associated with terrorism: Red Army Faction (RAF), Aum Shinrikyo and "Mad Bomber" Greg Metesky.
3rd August 2017:
-Spent 2 and a half hours on the terrorism article yesterday, I am currently working on it at the moment.
30th July 2017:
-Today and yesterday I have spent approximately 5 hours on research and writing for the new article. My intention was to complete it today, with the article summarising information on 12 terrorist groups. With the complexity and significance of the groups, together with an insurmountable amount of information available, I have yet to complete all 12. I have so far completed only two groups. I will increase my efforts on it in the coming week.
27th July 2017:
-Working on an article on terrorist groups.
22nd July 2017:
-Apologies for the late updates. I am currently studying for a certificate in three courses simultaneously in my spare time, mainly about terrorism and counter-terrorism.
-New article complete: "International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism" under "Treaties / Topics". Please enjoy.
-Working on an article on terrorist groups.
9th July 2017:
-Back in the United Kingdom. I always enjoy being in The Hague. Currently studying for a certificate on combating the financing of terrorism in my spare time. New articles are in progress.
2nd July 2017:
-Still writing the article I have been working on. Around 7000 words at the moment. I am also currently in The Hague in the Netherlands.
25th June 2017:
-Article ongoing, on 6500 words at the moment.
22nd June 2017:
-The closing stages of my article are proving difficult. I am not happy that this article has taken me so long to write. While I do not want to rush it's completion, I am looking forward to focusing on other topics, specifically on the Responsibility To Protect (R2P), humanitarian intervention, the Geneva Conventions and the sinking of the rainbow warrior.
17th June 2017:
-Continued to write my article daily. Today I spent 3hours 38minutes on it (3pm to 6.38pm). It takes time as all writing is my own with no references (only a couple of quotes are included). Provisionally, it contains 14 mini chapters.
13th June 2017:
-Still working on my article, yesterday I spent 2 hours on it. Need to do more.
10th June 2017:
-Today has been an absolutely hectic day running errands around London. On top of that, my laptop screen broke as I was about to start writing. Fortunately, I got it fixed and writing commenced 5.30pm until 9pm.
-I have been working on the opinion based international law article, which has transformed into something quite different that is compelling to me. The article gained alot of momentum today, I will continue to work on it tomorrow.
9th June 2017:
-Having difficulty structuring my opinion based international law article, progress is slower on opinion based articles.
-After the terrorist attacks in London, Tehran and Kabul, I have spent more time reading articles by the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism.
-5 things planned that are fascinating me at the moment: article on the legality of the Obama administration use of drone strikes, article on terrorism, article on the sinking of the rainbow warrior, continuation of my opinion based international law article.
7th June 2017:
-Working on an article about international law, it is more of a personal article of why it is so compelling to me.
-Researching information on the sinking of the rainbow warrior.
4th June 2017:
-Saddened and shocked by the events in London Bridge and Borough Market last night.
-New article complete "Introduction to Chemical Weapons" under "Treaties / Topics".
3rd June 2017:
-Currently working on an article on chemical weapons, it will be finished by today or tomorrow.
31st May 2017:
-Article finished! "Case concerning United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran" under "Cases". This article took well over ten hours to complete. My original intention was only to write about the Court case, however the desire to understand the root cause unearthed a complex and tangled web of relations that I wanted to discover. Please enjoy.
-I have started research on the next article on chemical weapons.
30th May 2017:
-Spent a total averaging over five hours on the article yesterday. It is a highly complex article involving references from many sources including government bodies, legal documents and interviews. Instead of rushing to complete my self imposed deadline of yesterday, I will rest for now and aim to complete it later today. I prefer a quality article than a rushed article.
29th May 2017:
-I have spent four hours on the Iran hostage crisis article today. I am still in the process of writing it.
27th May 2017:
-Currently working on the Iran hostage crisis article. I have spent a solid two hours on it so far today, aiming to complete it by tomorrow.
23rd May 2017:
-Article on the OPCW and chemical weapons coming soon.
-Currently working on the Iran hostage crisis article.
22nd May 2017:
-Currently working on a new article on the Iran hostage crisis.
20th May 2017:
-Article finished "The Arctic Sunrise - Kingdom of the Netherlands v. Russian Federation" under "Cases". Please enjoy. The article took a week to complete from start to finish.
-Planning to archive the website updates in 2016 on a separate page.
19th May 2017:
-Added information on Australia in "State information". I will be adding more this weekend.
-Still working on the Netherlands v. Russia article.
18th May 2017:
-Currently working on an article the Netherlands v. Russia.
-I have been thinking of writing an article on the foreign policy of the Liberal Democrats/Labour/Conservative according to their manifesto.
-6 new words added under "Glossary"
15th May 2017:
-Added information on Argentina and Armenia in "State Information"
14th May 2017:
-Article finished "Ukraine v. Russia Federation" under "Cases". The case is about alleged violations of two treaties by the Russian Federation. Please enjoy.
-Amended the homepage a little, specifically deleting "about" and "unless made explicit, all writing and photos are my own" on my homepage. I think it is already quite obvious to the reader.
11th May 2017:
-Started on Ukraine v. Russia article.
-I decided to release my new article "State information" while I am simultaneously working on it. I did this for two reasons. Firstly, this project will take time due to the amount of States covered, and so putting it live will push me to complete it as soon as possible. Secondly, once the article is complete, the reader is unlikely to read about all the states in one sitting. A steady consistent release of content is therefore the way forward.
9th May 2017:
-Currently working on an article involving every Member State of the United Nations. I have started the article today. I will be working on this article this week.
7th May 2017:
-New article out "10 Subjects on Public International Law" under "Treaties / Topics". I had so much fun writing this article! I was captivated by the "responsibility to protect" and the law of armed conflict. It took around 5 hours to complete. Most of the article was finished yesterday, with final polishes done today. As a result of this, my previous two articles ("Questions on international law" and "Summary of international law") have been put down while I review these.
-4 words added under "Glossary"
6th May 2017:
-This week I have been writing a summary of international law which is near completion. I have also been reading about the "responsibility to protect" as a justification for engaging in armed conflict. I find this interesting.
1st May 2017:
-Article finished "International Response to Climate Change" under "Treaties/Topics". Please enjoy.
-In order to compliment my previous articles introducing international law, I will write a third article which gives a better framework on the subjects in international law. I may merge all three together. This is something I am not satisfied with at the moment.
-After the above article is complete, I will write a more detailed article on "the irrelevance of official capacity" (Article 27) of the Rome Statute.
-Planning to do another article on Namibia/South Africa relations, however I may incorporate this in an upcoming "Foreign Policy News" article.
30th April 2017:
-I am currently looking at three areas of interest: the Rome Statute conflict of Article 27 and Article 98, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and Namibia/South Africa relations.
27th April 2017:
-I am focused on the Rome Statute and Namibia/South Africa relations this week.
23rd April 2017:
-Article finished "Summary of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969" under "Treaties / Topics". It was one of the longest articles related to international law that I have written, taking over 10 hours to write. There is one more thing to do on this article, which is to highlight noteworthy points for easier reading. I will do this within the next few days. Please enjoy.
-16 new words added under "Glossary"
-Short summaries on subjects in international law will be one of the next articles I will work on. I intend to merge this article with the "introduction to international law" article.
-Article on cases related to the Law of Treaties, such as Myanmar and Namibia.
22nd April 2017:
-Currently on article 79 of the convention. It will be finished soon
-Article on cases applicable to the convention, including Myanmar and Namibia.
19th April 2017:
-Currently on article 54 on the Vienna Convention. As a result of writing this article, I plan to write a second article once I finish. The second article will be about the application of treaties in actual cases (regarding reservations and so on). This will give a clearer understanding of the treaty.
17th April 2017:
-I am still working on the law of treaties article, it involves having to read and understand word for word all 85 articles of the treaty. I aim to finish in the next few days. While I do this I will leave you with a line from the Irish poet Seamus Heaney: "You carried your own burden and very soon, your symptoms of creeping privilege disappeared."
15th April 2017:
-Currently working on a new article about the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969.
13th April 2017:
-In the past week I have been intensely observing the situation in Syria. In particular, the actions and statements of the UN Security Council (including draft resolution S/2017/315), the missile strike on Shayrat airbase by the US, and the use of chemical weapons in Syria. I have added two points on "Foreign Policy news" under "Writing / Philosophy" about this.
-I have now moved "Brief introduction to international law" and "Questions on international law" (formerly "8 questions on international law") to "Cases / Topics". Both of these articles were written in late 2016, I have been refining and improving both articles. I still feel there is more to add for both of these articles.
12th April 2017:
-I have made some edits to the "introduction to international law" and "8 questions on international law" articles. There is a lot more content that I wish to add to these articles, which I will work on over the next few days. I believe it is essential to clarify fundamental principles of international law. I am also planning to take them away from "Writing / Philosophy" section and put them into "Treaties / Topics"
11th April 2017:
-Yesterday involved much research and reading on the Lotus case in preparation for the new article. New article now completed "The Case of the S.S. “Lotus” (France v. Turkey)" under "Cases". Please enjoy!
-I have reinstated an old article entitled "Daily Aphorisms" under "Writing / Philosophy". The writings contained in the article came from a long process of sorting out previous notebooks and papers with my writings on them between approx 2005-2009. The bulk of the writings is about philosophy. The notebooks and papers have long been shredded, but I took out from them what I believed to be the most useful pieces of information. I have reinstated it because it may be of use and inspiration to my readers, especially those in the creative industries.
-Article on Edinburgh coming soon.
-Refined and improved articles on introducing international law coming soon.
9th April 2017:
-Today's agenda is to review previous articles introducing international law, in order to give my readers from a non-law background more clarity on what it entails.
-Article on the Lotus (France v. Turkey) also planned for this week.
8th April 2017:
-After three days of reading and writing in three sessions, totalling 4 hours 45 minutes, article is now finished "Arrest warrant of 11th April 2000: Belgium v. Congo" under "Cases". Please enjoy!
7th April 2017:
-Article finished today "The Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand)" under "Cases"
5th April 2017:
-Article "Summary of the North Atlantic Treaty (1949)" finished today under "Treaties / Topics". Please enjoy.
-Currently in the middle of an article involving a territory dispute between Thailand and Cambodia. I aim to finish this later today.
-Also in the pipeline is working on Belgium v. Congo case, and reviewing introduction articles on international law to make them clearer.
3rd April 2017:
-Finished article on the Rome Statute entitled: "Crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide and the crime of aggression summary" under "Treaties / Topics".
-Five points added before my laptop dies in "Foreign Policy News" under "Writing / Philosophy".
-Article on the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, and an article about the 2008 Russia-Georgia war.
1st April 2017:
-New article finished "Soup curry, sake and whiskey in Sapporo and Otaru, Japan" under "Minimalism/ Travel" please enjoy.
31st March 2017:
-Added a photo on the article "Daylight Briefcase by Tom Bihn" under "Minimalism / Travel"
-Currently working on an article about Japan. This is nearly complete. More information will be released soon.
-Also working on an article simultaneously about war crimes. This article will be brief.
-I am currently travelling and therefore the articles may take a few more days longer to complete.
25th March 2017:
-Article "Summary on the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations 1961" under "Treaties / Topics" completed today. Please enjoy.
24th March 2017:
-Article on the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations almost complete, it will be published within the next few days.
22nd March 2017:
-Today the International Criminal Court delivered it's decision on the case The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidèle Babala Wandu and Narcisse Arido. Gombo was sentenced to an additional one year imprisonment (of his 18 year sentence in June 2016) and fined 300,000 euros. I have written about Gombo on my article "International Criminal Court cases". The official press release can be found here.
-Currently investigating and researching on the 2008 Russia-Georgia war for a planned article.
19th March 2017:
-New article completed "Summary of the Maritime Delimitation in the Indian Ocean (Somalia v. Kenya)" found under "Cases". After a week of research and two days of writing, I am pleased with the article. My intention with this article is to give my readers a greater understanding of this ongoing dispute.
18th March 2017:
-Currently writing an article on Somalia v. Kenya, to be completed by this weekend.
-Also looking into setting up a forum for this website, allowing users to interact with each other.
17th March 2017:
-This week I have been researching about the territory dispute on the case Somalia v. Kenya. Article to be completed by the weekend.
12th March 2017:
-Spanning two days with two sessions (5th March 14.30-17.00 and 23.25-0.00 and 12th March 14:00-16.30 to 21:00-22.50) totalling 6 hours 20 minutes, new article finished The role of the UN Security Council under "Treaties/ Topics". Much of the time was spent reading texts to fully understand the matters discussed. I still feel the article needs improvement, but I will leave it there for today. Please enjoy!
5th March 2017:
-Currently writing an article on the role of the UN Security Council.
26th February 2017:
-Today I will be focusing on my novel, no articles will be published today. I have last mentioned about this novel on the 12th September 2016 entry.
25th February 2017:
-New article "Law of Armed Conflict" now complete, taking just over two hours in two sessions today (4pm-5.10pm and 9.40pm to 10.38pm). I hope this summary on the law of armed conflict helps educate those that are interested.
20th February 2017:
-I am happy to announce my new article "Summary of the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols" under a new navigation bar entitled "Treaties". This took 5 hours 15 minutes to complete over three sessions of writing. Please enjoy.
19th February 2017:
-Added 7 new words under "Glossary" in "Writing / Philosophy".
-Two articles planned for today, on a summary of the Geneva Conventions and an article on justice. Summary of the Geneva Conventions will be the first to be published.
12th February 2017:
-Articles were delayed last week due to moving house.
-New article "Legal consequences of the construction of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory" completed today under "Cases". This took two and a half hours to complete, please enjoy.
-Article on people involved in international law.
30th January 2017:
-New article "Western Sahara" completed today under "Cases"
-Some articles under "Writing / Philosophy" I have taken off the site, mainly because I feel they don't fit in with the theme of the site.
28th January 2017:
After approximately two hours of reading and writing, I am happy to announce the new article "Corfu channel case" completed today under "Cases".
21st January 2017:
Initial focus will be articles under "Cases" navigation bar. Including: Belgium v Congo, Western Sahara, de Guerrero v Colombia, and Corfu channel case (United Kingdom v Albania).
14th January 2017:
Notice to reader: As of today, 14th January 2017, skyphilosophy.com was changed to intlaw.co.uk.
Redesign of website will start today. Please bear with me while I make changes to the site layout. See 9th January 2017 entry for more information.
Some links from third party websites to my site are broken as they are connected to skyphilosophy.com. This will happen as I am making changes. Articles can still be found by clicking on the appropriate navigation bar to find the article manually.
11th January 2017:
-13 new words added under "Glossary" under "Writing / Philosophy"
-Updated map under "Press" to reflect location of readers up to Jan 2017.
9th January 2017:
-I have been planning to update website branding, with a stronger emphasis on international law. It will include a new website name (however the skyphilosophy.com domain will still be kept), with new navigation and article content. Current articles will be reviewed and placed in a different location. Links will still work.
-Preliminary navigation will include "Topics" (such as law of the sea, state immunity, law of armed conflict, international criminal law and so on), "Country" (overview of situations in countries), "Entertainment" (where my bag reviews/travel articles will be), and "About" which maintains current "About".
1st January 2017:
-Happy new year! My first article of 2017 is a short article of what international organisations are inside of The Hague, the Netherlands. "Inside The Hague, the Netherlands" under "Minimalism / Travel".
-Articles planned for 2017: United Kingdom relationship with Genocide and an article on the three generations of human rights.